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The B-29 played an important role in developing the effective use of aerial refueling during the late 1940s. The first aircraft involved in this programme were the KB-29M tanker and B-29MR receiver. At first, a grappling system, known as the looped hose method, was used; the tanker would enter formation flight behind, above and to the left of the receiver. It would then unreel a hauling cable attached to a 55lb weight (to make it dangle near vertically). The receiver would trail a hauling cable ending in a drag cone (to make this trail near horizontally) and a grapnel. With both cables trailed, the tanker would cross to the right of the receiver so the two cables snagged each other. With cables snagged, the tanker hauled both into its fuselage where the receiver's cable was connected to the tanker's hose. This was then hauled into the receiver. After connecting with internal fuel compartments pumping would begin. When the receiver was full the process was reversed allowing the tanker to recover its hose and the receiver its hauling cable. While this system was clumsy, it was often used in the late 1940s before a better system was developed. It was most notably used to refuel the Lucky Lady II during her famous circumnavigation of the globe in 1949. This helped sway the argument as to whether the USAF or US Navy should provide the US's nuclear delivery capability. The USAF won with the consequential massive expansion of the USAF's Strategic Air Command and cancellation of the US Navy's super carriers.
The looped hose method was only of use with large multi crew planes since crew members were required to assist in the hauling in. A modified method known as the probe and drogue system was developed to allow single seat aircraft to be refuelled in the air. With jet fighters suffering from short range there was a need for these to be refuelled in the air and several KB-29Ms were modified to use 'probe-and-drogue' systems, in which the refueling hose has a torus-shaped para-drogue attached to the end, and the receiving aircraft has a probe on its nose or wing, which the pilot manoeuvers into the drogue to link the hose.
In an effort to improve on the probe-and-drogue system, Boeing developed a rigid flying boom system, which was first used on the KB-29P. The boom was mounted on the aftmost end of the KB-29P, and used a V-tail-like set of control surfaces for stabilization at its far end. With the V-tail-style surfaces, still used on most USAF tanker aircraft in the 21st century, the boom could be manoeuvered by the operator. The flying boom system was selected by SAC as the preferred method for refuelling their bombers and, because of the massive size attained by SAC, it became the most common method for In-Flight Refueling in the USAF and was used on KC-97s and also on modern tankers such as the KC-135 Stratotanker, the KC-10 Extender, and the KC-46 Pegasus. The KB-29P was operated by 420th Air Refueling Squadron based at RAF Sculthorpe Norfolk during the mid-1950s. From 1954 to 1957, the 407th Air Refueling Squadron was based at Great Falls Air Force Base. Later the base name was changed to Malmstrom Air Force Base.
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) directive, Final Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review, dated December 16, 2004 (263 KB PDF), requires that there be a "systematic process of peer review planning" and public access to a list of information products for that will be peer reviewed as either influential scientific information or highly influential scientific assessments.
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X chromosome inactivation in mammalian females results in the cis-limited transcriptional inactivity of most of the genes on one X chromosome. The XIST gene is unique among X-linked genes in being expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome. Human XIST cDNAs containing at least eight exons and totaling 17 kb have been isolated and sequenced within the region on the X chromosome known to contain the X inactivation center. The XIST gene includes several tandem repeats, the most 5' of which are evolutionarily conserved. The gene does not contain any significant conserved ORFs and thus does not appear to encode a protein, suggesting that XIST may function as a structural RNA within the nucleus. Consistent with this, fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments demonstrate localization of XIST RNA within the nucleus to a position indistinguishable from the X inactivation-associated Barr body.
The Xist gene maps to the X inactivation center region in both mouse and human, and previous analysis of the 3' end of the gene has demonstrated inactive X-specific expression, suggesting a possible role in X inactivation. We have now analyzed the entire mouse Xist gene. The mature inactive X-specific transcript is 15 kb in length and contains no conserved ORF. The Xist sequence contains a number of regions comprised of tandem repeats. Comparison with the human XIST gene demonstrates significant conservation of sequence and gene structure. Xist RNA is not associated with the translational machinery of the cell and is located almost exclusively in the nucleus. Together with conservation of inactive X-specific expression, these findings support a role for Xist in X inactivation, possibly as a functional RNA or as a chromatin organizer region.
The 2008 Guidelines Manual (effective November 1, 2008) is available in Adobe PDF format (large file and broken into chapters), which can be viewed, downloaded or printed via the website. Complete Guidelines Manual (Chapters 1 - 8, Appendix A, Index) (PDF - 1,914 kb)
The Version 3.2 ENERGY STAR specification for imaging equipment has been finalized. Materials related to this revision process are provided below. Stakeholders who received past communications related to development of Version 3.2 will continue to receive updates on the development effort. To be added to the contact list, stakeholders are encouraged to contact firstname.lastname@example.org with their contact information.
EPA held a webinar on August 24, 2017 to discuss Draft 1 of the Version 3.0 Imaging Equipment test method. Please send all written feedback to email@example.com no later than September 11, 2017.
EPA held a webinar on March 1, 2017 to launch the Version 3.0 Imaging Equipment development process. Please send all written feedback to firstname.lastname@example.org no later than March 22, 2017.
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The documents below represent contract DE-SC0014664 between Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and the U.S. Department of Energy for the management of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education.
This page provides the chassis dynamometer driving schedules and shift schedules used by EPA for vehicle emissions and fuel economy testing. This page also provides detailed information on those drive schedules in addition to technical information on drive schedules used by states, Europe, and Japan for reference. 041b061a72