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Scroll



A scroll is usually partitioned into pages, which are sometimes separate sheets of papyrus or parchment glued together at the edges. Scrolls may be marked divisions of a continuous roll of writing material. The scroll is usually unrolled so that one page is exposed at a time, for writing or reading, with the remaining pages rolled and stowed to the left and right of the visible page. Text is written in lines from the top to the bottom of the page. Depending on the language, the letters may be written left to right, right to left, or alternating in direction (boustrophedon).




Scroll



Scrolls were the first form of editable record keeping texts, used in Eastern Mediterranean ancient Egyptian civilizations. Parchment scrolls were used by the Israelites among others before the codex or bound book with parchment pages was invented by the Romans, which became popular around the 1st century AD.[2] Scrolls were more highly regarded than codices until well into Roman times.


Shorter pieces of parchment or paper are called rolls or rotuli, although usage of the term by modern historians varies with periods. Historians of the classical period tend to use roll instead of scroll. Rolls may still be many meters or feet long, and were used in the medieval and Early Modern period in Europe and various West Asian cultures for manuscript administrative documents intended for various uses, including accounting, rent-rolls, legal agreements, and inventories. A distinction that sometimes applies is that the lines of writing in rotuli run across the width of the roll (that is to say, are parallel with any unrolled portion) rather than along the length, divided into page-like sections. Rolls may be wider than most scrolls, up to perhaps 60 cm or two feet wide. Rolls were often stored together in a special cupboard on shelves.


In Scotland, the term scrow was used from about the 13th to the 17th centuries for scroll, writing, or documents in list or schedule form. There existed an office of Clerk of the Scrow (Rotulorum Clericus) meaning the Clerk of the Rolls or Clerk of the Register.[4]


Eventually, the folds were cut into sheets, or "leaves," and bound together along one edge. The bound pages were protected by stiff covers, usually of wood enclosed with leather. Codex is Latin for a "block of wood": the Latin liber, the root of "library," and the German Buch, the source of "book," both refer to wood. The codex was not only easier to handle than the scroll, but it also fit conveniently on library shelves. The spine generally held the book's title, facing out, affording easier organization of the collection. The surface on which the ink was applied was kept flat, not subjected to weakening by the repeated bending and unbending that scrolls undergo as they are alternately rolled up for storage and unrolled for reading, which creates physical stresses in both the papyrus and the ink of scrolls.


From the fourth century on, the codex became the standard format for books, and scrolls were no longer generally used. After the contents of a parchment scroll were copied in codex format, the scroll was seldom preserved. The majority that did survive were found by archaeologists in burial pits and in the buried trash of forgotten communities.[7]


The oldest complete Torah scroll was discovered stored in an academic library in Bologna, Italy, by Professor Mauro Perani in 2013. It had been mislabeled in 1889 as dating from the 17th century, but Perani suspected it was actually older as it was written in an earlier Babylonian script. Two tests conducted by laboratories at Italy's University of Salento and at the University of Illinois confirmed that the scroll dates from the second half of the 12th century to the first quarter of the 13th century. Ancient Torah scrolls are rare because when they are damaged they stop being used for liturgies and are buried.


Modern technology may be able to assist in reading ancient scrolls. In January 2015, computer software may be making progress in reading 2,000-year-old Herculaneum scrolls, computer scientists report. After working for more than 10 years on unlocking the contents of damaged Herculaneum scrolls, researchers may be able to progress towards reading the scrolls, which cannot be physically opened.[10]


The scroll event fires when the document view has been scrolled. To detect when scrolling has completed, see the Document: scrollend event. For element scrolling, see Element: scroll event.


Since scroll events can fire at a high rate, the event handler shouldn't execute computationally expensive operations such as DOM modifications. Instead, it is recommended to throttle the event using requestAnimationFrame(), setTimeout(), or a CustomEvent, as follows.


Note, however, that input events and animation frames are fired at about the same rate, and therefore the optimization below is often unnecessary. This example optimizes the scroll event for requestAnimationFrame.


\n The scroll event fires when the document view has been scrolled.\n To detect when scrolling has completed, see the Document: scrollend event.\n For element scrolling, see Element: scroll event.\n


The following examples show how to use the scroll event with an event listener and with the onscroll event handler property. The setTimeout() method is used to throttle the event handler because scroll events can fire at a high rate. For additional examples that use requestAnimationFrame(), see the Document: scroll event page.


\n The following examples show how to use the scroll event with an event listener and with the onscroll event handler property.\n The setTimeout() method is used to throttle the event handler because scroll events can fire at a high rate.\n For additional examples that use requestAnimationFrame(), see the Document: scroll event page.\n


The scroll event is sent to an element when the user scrolls to a different place in the element. It applies to window objects, but also to scrollable frames and elements with the overflow CSS property set to scroll (or auto when the element's explicit height or width is less than the height or width of its contents).


A scroll event is sent whenever the element's scroll position changes, regardless of the cause. A mouse click or drag on the scroll bar, dragging inside the element, pressing the arrow keys, or using the mouse's scroll wheel could cause this event.


Use the scroll-ms-* and scroll-me-* utilities to set the scroll-margin-inline-start and scroll-margin-inline-end logical properties, which map to either the left or right side based on the text direction.


You can also use variant modifiers to target media queries like responsive breakpoints, dark mode, prefers-reduced-motion, and more. For example, use md:scroll-m-0 to apply the scroll-m-0 utility at only medium screen sizes and above.


Scroll Reverser is a free Mac app that reverses the direction of scrolling, with independent settings for trackpads and mice. (Including Magic Mouse.) Scroll Reverser was made by Nick Moore, with language translations by community contributors. To get in touch, contact support@pilotmoon.com, or head over to Scroll Reverser Discussions on GitHub. Please also check out my other apps. Scroll Reverser is free of charge and is made available under the Apache Licence 2.0. The source code is available. Translations I am now using the CrowdIn platform for users to contribute translations in their own language. If you would like to add or suggest changes to translations please go to: Pilotmoon Apps project on CrowdIn. If your language does not exist in the project, send me an email so I can add it.


Can you make it reverse swipe gestures too? No, this is not possible. However, swipe direction respects the "Scroll Direction: Natural" setting in System Preferences. Set that to your liking, then use Scroll Reverser to adjust scrolling with respect to that base setting.


I am controlling a machine via remote desktop, and Scroll Reverser is running on both the local and remote machine. Anything I can do to make it work nicely? Run this command at terminal on the remote machine: defaults write com.pilotmoon.scroll-reverser ReverseOnlyRawInput -bool YES then quit and restart Scroll Reverser.


Views infinite scroll allows you to load and display pages of any view inline, using AJAX (this has been called infinite scrolling, load more, autopaging, endless pages and more). The pager can be triggered with the press of a button or automatically as the user scrolls to the bottom of the view's content.


A scroll was a roll constructed of material that ranged from papyrus to parchment. However, the material taken from a papyrus plant predominately composed the scrolls of the ancient world. Since 3000 BC, the plant was native only to Egypt and considered the major distributor to the rest of the Mediterranean world. On the other hand, when the papyrus plant was no longer cultivated as writing material, the act caused the extinction of the species, Cyperus Papyrus L., in Egypt. As a result, the modern-day papyrus in Egypt came from Paris.


A conventional roll was sold as twenty sheets pasted together. However, a scribe possessed the ability to determine the length of the roll by cutting off or adding individual sheets to their desired length for the text. With that in mind, the longest Ancient Egyptian roll was around 40 meters (131 feet). Also, a Greek roll did not exceed more than 11 meters (36 feet). The beginning of the roll began with the protokollon or unwritten sheets and often ended with an umbilicus, which was a wooden stick unattached used for unrolling. The sheets were pasted in a way that the left side of a sheet was always over the right in any kolleseis or join. In determining which side of the papyrus was the verso or recto, the kolleseis was vital. The side that was written on was the horizontal side, which was called a recto, where the fibers were parallel to the length of the roll and lines of writing. Writing on the verso or vertical side was unusual, but was still acceptable. A scroll was usually only written on one side unless the scroll was reused, becoming a palimpsest or a piece of writing material where the original writing was washed off and new writing was made. The end of the papyrus stalk could be used as a tie to secure a scroll for storage. 041b061a72


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